Huawei smartphone

Huawei’s Latest Smartphones, Network Gear are “America-Free”

Here’s one thing the U.S. government might not have considered when it banned Huawei from doing business in the country: The Chinese networking and smartphone giant doesn’t necessarily need the U.S. to thrive. In fact, its latest smartphones and 5G networking equipment are now “America-free.”


According to an analysis by UBS and Fomalhaut Techno Solutions and cited first by The Wall Street Journal, the Huawei Mate 30 series of handsets are made entirely without any U.S. parts, a first. The expectation is that all 2020 Huawei smartphones will be made similarly.
And it’s not just handsets.

“All of our 5G [hardware] is now America-free,” Huawei cybersecurity official John Suffolk told the Journal. “We would like to continue using American components. It’s good for American industry. It’s good for Huawei. That has been taken out of our hands.”

The net result is harmful to U.S. component makers, of course: Huawei is the world leader in the networking hardware market and is number two in smartphones. And this change mirrors the effect of Huawei not using software made by U.S. corporations like Google and Microsoft, a situation these tech giants warned the U.S. government about when it blacklisted Huawei: This action will make the U.S. weaker, not stronger, because Huawei and other Chinese tech firms will no longer rely on products and services that originate here.

What this change signifies, of course, replacing hardware components is simpler than replacing core software platforms like Android and Windows. But it’s only a matter of time before China catches up in the software arena. The clock is ticking.


By |2019-12-23T10:35:45+00:00December 3rd, 2019|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Facebook chatbot

Facebook Gives Workers a Chatbot

The “Liam Bot” teaches employees what to say if friends or family ask difficult questions about the company over the holidays.

A chatbot is available to help Facebook employees if they get the kinds of questions that their boss, Mark Zuckerberg, right, faced on Capitol Hill.SAN FRANCISCO — Some Facebook employees recently told their managers that they were concerned about answering difficult questions about their workplace from friends and family over the holidays.
What if Mom or Dad accused the social network of destroying democracy? Or what if they said Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook’s chief executive, was collecting their online data at the expense of privacy?
So just before Thanksgiving, Facebook rolled out something to help its workers: a chatbot that would teach them official company answers for dealing with such thorny questions.
If a relative asked how Facebook handled hate speech, for example, the chatbot — which is a simple piece of software that uses artificial intelligence to carry on a conversation — would instruct the employee to answer with these points:

  • Facebook consults with experts on the matter.
  • It has hired more moderators to police its content.
  • It is working on A.I. to spot hate speech.
  • Regulation is important for addressing the issue.

It would also suggest citing statistics from a Facebook report about how the company enforces its standards.
The answers were put together by Facebook’s public relations department, parroting what company executives have publicly said.
And the chatbot has a name: the “Liam Bot.” (The provenance of the name is unclear.)
“Our employees regularly ask for information to use with friends and family on topics that have been in the news, especially around the holidays,” a Facebook spokeswoman said. “We put this into a chatbot, which we began testing this spring.”
For Facebook employees, that has sometimes led to questions from family and friends about why they would work for the Silicon Valley company. This year, Facebook fell to seventh place from the top spot when people were asked where they most wanted to work, according to a survey by Glassdoor, the employee reviews site.
Facebook announced the Liam Bot in a message to employees, the company said. In past years, Facebook provided employees with guidance for the holiday season by sharing news releases in internal groups, or directly with those who asked for advice. The company said it wanted to create a more efficient way to answer employee questions this year.
For instance, if relatives asked a Facebook employee what to do if they were locked out of their Facebook accounts because of a password reset, Liam Bot could provide a step-by-step solution.

Credit…Eric Thayer for The New York Times

Facebook’s reputation has been shredded by a string of scandals — including how the site spreads disinformation and can be used to meddle in elections — in recent years. In October, Mr. Zuckerberg was grilled by lawmakers for hours over everything from political advertising to work-force diversity.

In its answers, the Liam Bot often links to company blog posts and news releases. It doesn’t just provide answers to difficult questions about Facebook’s role in the world, either. Liam Bot is also practical with personal technology advice.

By |2019-12-23T10:38:56+00:00December 3rd, 2019|Uncategorized|0 Comments

Saving the Rainforest with Old Cell Phones

Saving the Rainforest with Old Cell Phones

Rainforests have some of the most complicated soundscapes on the planet. In this dense noise of insects, primates, birds, and everything else that moves in the forest, how can you detect the sounds of illegal logging?
The old cell phone you have hanging around and collecting dust may have the answer.

So, how exactly does one go about saving the rainforest with old cell phones?
After a visit to the rainforests of Borneo, physicist and engineer Topher White was struck by the sounds of the forest. In particular, the noises he couldn’t hear.


While on a walk, White and others came across an illegal logger sawing down a tree just a few hundred meters away from a ranger station.
This incident set White thinking that perhaps the best way to save the Earth’s precious rainforest is to listen to its loggers and poachers. And the innovation he came up with uses old cell phones to do this!
To introduce us to the innovation he came up with, here is Topher White on the National Geographic Live stage. National Geographic is promoting some incredible things, so go check them out to see what they’ve been up to lately!

If you are anything like me, you are the sad owner of a cell phone graveyard. A drawer filled with the technology I no longer use; ancient iPods, my first flip phone, and years of cracked iPhones. I’m not proud of this drawer, but honestly, I just don’t know what to do with it! Fixing them feels impossible, throwing them away seems wrong, so what are we to do?

A Greener Future Beyond Recycling Cell Phones…
As is so often the case, it’s easy to overlook the simple ways we can help to contribute to a brighter collective future. As consumers, though, we have the power to change the way companies operate. By remaining informed about the broader impact our buying choices have, we can help to support businesses that have a positive environmental and social impact.

Being informed also helps us reduce our waste overall! Simple things like repairing or buying our clothes second hand, recycling our plastics, or supporting green energy become second nature.
Most of all, we are fortunate enough live in an era where being a responsible steward of the planet can start with a simple Google search.
Stay beautiful & keep laughing!

Rainforest Connection is saving the rainforest with something sitting in your desk drawer! If you are in the U.S. or Canada you can check out Gazelle or Call 2 Recycle, the two resources they mentioned in the video. And if you live elsewhere, you can probably find a technology recycling solution by trying a quick Google search for e-waste recycling in your area.

We’ve talked about creative ways that people are re-purposing technology on Ever Widening Circles (EWC) before, and one of my favorite examples is the organization Rainforest Connection that uses old cell phones to help protect the rainforest. I have to admit, though, until I watched today’s video, I didn’t quite grasp the enormous impact our e-waste has on the environment.




By |2019-12-23T10:44:34+00:00November 25th, 2019|Uncategorized|0 Comments

3-D Metal Printing

3-D Metal Printing

While 3-D printing has been around for decades, it has remained largely in the domain of hobbyists and designers producing one-off prototypes. And printing objects with anything other than plasticsin particular, metalhas been expensive and painfully slow.
Now, however, it’s becoming cheap and easy enough to be a potentially practical way of manufacturing parts. If widely adopted, it could change the way we mass-produce many products.


3-D Metal Printing :

  • BreakthroughNow printers can make metal objects quickly and cheaply.
  • Why It MattersThe ability to make large and complex metal ­objects on demand could transform manufacturing.
  • Key PlayersMarkforged, Desktop Metal, GE
  • AvailabilityNow

In the short term, manufacturers wouldn’t need to maintain large inventoriesthey could simply print an object, such as a replacement part for an aging car, whenever someone needs it.
In the longer term, large factories that mass-produce a limited range of parts might be replaced by smaller ones that make a wider variety, adapting to customers’ changing needs.

The technology can create lighter, stronger parts, and complex shapes that aren’t possible with conventional metal fabrication methods. It can also provide more precise control of the microstructure of metals. In 2017, researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory announced they had developed a 3-D-printing method for creating stainless-steel parts twice as strong as traditionally made ones.

Also in 2017, 3-D-printing company Markforged, a small startup based outside Boston, released the first 3-D metal printer for under $100,000.

Another Boston-area startup, Desktop Metal, began to ship its first metal prototyping machines in December 2017. It plans to begin selling larger machines, designed for manufacturing, that are 100 times faster than older metal printing methods.

The printing of metal parts is also getting easier. Desktop Metal now offers software that generates designs ready for 3-D printing. Users tell the program the specs of the object they want to print, and the software produces a computer model suitable for printing.

GE, which has long been a proponent of using 3-D printing in its aviation products (see “10 Breakthrough Technologies of 2013: Additive Manufacturing”), has a test version of its new metal printer that is fast enough to make large parts. The company plans to begin selling the printer in 2018. —Erin Winick

By |2019-12-23T10:47:04+00:00November 25th, 2019|Uncategorized|0 Comments

New Digital Workforce

New Digital Workforce

Management consulting firm McKinsey says that more than 80% of companies it has spoken with are experimenting with, implementing, or broadly scaling the technology. And the activity is not confined to large companies — businesses across the size spectrum are piloting this flexible, promising software, according to Brandy Smith, of McKinsey’s automation-at-scale practice.

As has been true since RPA’s birth a few years ago, it’s most commonly found in the back office, automating workflows like procure-to-pay, order-to-cash, and record-to-report. The common link among such processes and others suited to RPA: they are business-rules-based, non-subjective, repetitive tasks. Effective implementation can result in greater efficiency and productivity, fewer errors, and higher workforce productivity.

digital world


But now robotic software appears ready to move to a more visible position in the enterprise: companies are increasingly applying it to core finance processes.


Based on a survey of 64 corporate controllers at companies with greater than $1 billion in revenue, as well as other quantitative and qualitative research, Gartner found that 50% of controllers and their teams are either in the process of implementing RPA (31%) or are in what it calls “operational” mode (19%). And within just two years, Gartner expects 88% of such controllership functions to be in one of those two buckets.



Many companies, concerned about financial-reporting risk, had paused before expanding their use of RPA to core finance from shared services, notes Johanna Robinson, a finance practice leader at Gartner. But now that the technology has amply demonstrated its reliability, the move to core applications is in full swing.


Use of RPA now runs the gamut in finance, automating aspects of financial closing and consolidation; account, bank, and inter-company reconciliations; general-entry posting; cash-flow statement preparation; fixed-asset accounting; inventory accounting; and tax reporting, among other applications.



“If you’re not investing in RPA for core finance functions, you’re missing a lot of opportunities,” Robinson says. And, ultimately, as AI becomes more available, mainstream, and useful, enterprises that haven’t built the requisite automation skills and knowledge will be that much farther behind the curve, she adds.



For an accounting team with the equivalent of 40 full-time employees at an average annual salary of $75,000, that would amount to about 25,000 hours and $900,000 wasted on work that could be automated, Robinson estimates. “Our conversations with CFOs suggest that the real numbers could be twice that much,” she adds.



Enterprises may expect to pay a lot for such savings. But developing bots is generally inexpensive. “The cost of building them is much lower than what I’m used to from a technology-investment standpoint,” says Deanna Strable, CFO of Principal Financial.



Still, few companies delving into RPA intend to use the technology to cut headcount. “We didn’t go at this because of cost efficiency,” Strable says. “We’ll monitor that over time, but it’s more because we’re a growing organization. We need to support that and also reduce the chance that we’ll have to increase staff.”



Gaining knowledge about RPA programming, maintenance, and tracking—as a needed first step toward taking full advantage of intelligent automation—is a priority for the finance team at KPMG.


The Big Four accounting and professional services firm is about 55% of the way toward achieving an initial goal of creating 200,000 hours of workforce capacity savings. And the importance of that mission is not something that CFO David Turner plans to let his charges overlook.



He says it’s important to convince existing staff that “creating capacity and scale” really is the top payoff. “I’ve told them, ‘Look, if you keep yourself current in capabilities and learn how to use robotics to make yourself more productive, why would I cut your job?’”



Turner intends to train the entire staff on how to program and leverage bots. “I then will set them loose on their own work flow,” he says, “because I think they will find out what to do better and faster than we could.”



In a few years, robotic process automation may very well merge with or be rendered moot by artificial intelligence. But for now RPA, as it is known, commands the attention of enterprises and their finance teams to a degree few relatively new technologies have.




Mindset Adjustments

How can organizations optimize the use of RPA? Gartner’s Robinson offers some key thoughts.digital workforce costsFirst, to gauge the cost and productivity impact, organizations need to focus on hours of work displaced, rather than the number of bots or variety of processes automated.

Second, although standardizing processes before automating them is ingrained in finance professionals and works for ERP and other big enterprise technologies, “with RPA you can standardize as you automate,” Robinson says.

Change happens naturally, she adds. Coding the bots involves a logical set of “if-then” steps for replicating very granular actions. While going through the steps, the programmer likely will find some places to improve the logic and skip steps that humans usually take.

In fact, today’s RPA tools aren’t actually able to fully automate most end-to-end finance processes — even procure-to-pay, order-to-cash, and record-to-report, says Weston Jones, Ernst & Young’s global leader for intelligent automation.

“The tools do a really good job with work packets, but most of the end-to-end processes are too complex,” says Jones. “The tools don’t fully automate all the handoffs between procurement, finance, and other silos, and you still have to have people involved when there are exceptions.”
That’s why, although more companies are using RPA and finding new use cases, Jones characterizes its penetration as still very low. “There’s a lot of cherry-picking—bits and pieces of processes being automated.”

The ability to program bots for a plethora of small tasks and run them on desktop computers poses a risk for companies, especially multinationals, Jones notes.That’s because bots break. Any time an update is made to any software that a bot interacts with, or to a web page that incorporates bot-controlled processes, the bot will typically cease to function until its code is reworked.

“Common things like Adobe Acrobat and Microsoft Word are always updating,” Jones notes. A company that deploys hundreds or thousands of bots across operating units worldwide faces a serious change-management issue.

The problem is not insurmountable. A bot that runs on a desktop computer must be individually recoded every time there’s a software change. But if all bots reside on centralized servers, those affected by a particular software update can be recoded all at once.



A Mere Stepping Stone?


What will RPA look like in a few years? The major vendors are working to enhance their bot-building platforms with the pattern-recognition capabilities that drive machine learning. That would allow bots to get smarter over time, rather than just following their programming.

RPA occupies a lower position on a spectrum of what’s generally called intelligent automation. Machine learning is a step up from there, and full-blown artificial intelligence is beyond that.
For all the hype over AI, surprisingly few companies are doing anything with AI-enabled technologies except conducting small pilot tests. But some think it won’t be a matter of years but mere months before RPA begins linking up with the more advanced capabilities in ways that will be meaningful to a large swath of companies.

“We think that the lines between RPA, machine learning, and AI are going to start to blur within just 12 to 18 months,” says McKinsey’s Smith.
According to Gartner, while 56% of companies are evaluating AI for accounting and finance automation, only 5% of them are in the implementation phase. But by 2020, 31% of companies are expected to be in the implementation phase and 26% in “operating” mode.

For vendors, those trends could lead to either a war for survival or a softer merging of robotics and AI players, marked by a significant phase of consolidation.
“The big technology players are starting to place bets and have relationships with the automation and AI players,” Smith observes. “You could see them using their influence and R&D investment dollars to shape what the new solutions are going to be.”



Hours of Savings



As an example of the efficiencies to be gained from just error reduction, Gartner estimates that 70% of the accounting rework performed to fix errors before a financial close is necessarily manual.

The rest of the rework is avoidable using automation.



A caveat there is that while today’s bots can be programmed to execute multiple processes, a single bot can handle only one task at a time. That requires careful scheduling of the bot’s time to ensure that the more important tasks are completed first.



Third, with RPA there is no need to automate a process from end to end. Organizations can pick individual steps to automate. “That’s very different from the traditional finance mindset, where you’re always thinking about end-to-end,” says Robinson.

By |2019-12-23T10:54:23+00:00November 25th, 2019|Uncategorized|0 Comments


Android (operating system)

Android is a mobile operating system based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Android is developed by a consortium of developers known as the Open Handset Alliance, with the main contributor and commercial marketer being Google.

Initially developed by Android Inc., which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The current stable version is Android 10, released on September 3, 2019. The core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project (AOSP),

Second Android logotype (2014–2019)

which is primarily licensed under the Apache License. This has allowed variants of Android to be developed on a range of other electronics, such as game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and others, each with a specialized user interface. Some well known derivatives include Android TV for televisions and Wear OS for wearables, both developed by Google.

About Andriod:

Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as “tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner’s location and preferences”.

The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, and this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004. The company then decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, and by five months later it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile.

andriod os


Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, and Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope, and shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, and has stated “I did it because I believed in the thing, and I wanted to help Andy.”

In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million. Its key employees, including Rubin, Miner and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition.Not much was known about the secretive Android at the time, with the company having provided few details other than that it was making software for mobile phones.At Google,

the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system.Google had “lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation”.

Started from:

From 2008 to 2013, Hugo Barra served as product spokesperson, representing Android at press conferences and Google I/O, Google’s annual developer-focused conference. He left Google in August 2013 to join Chinese phone maker Xiaomi.Less than six months earlier,

Google’s then-CEO Larry Page announced in a blog post that Andy Rubin had moved from the Android division to take on new projects at Google, and that Sundar Pichai would become the new Android lead.Pichai himself would eventually switch positions, becoming the new CEO of Google in August 2015 following the company’s restructure into the Alphabet conglomerate,making Hiroshi Lockheimer the new head of Android.


Google introduced the Pixel and Pixel XL smartphones in October 2016, marketed as being the first phones made by Google,and exclusively featured certain software features, such as the Google Assistant, before wider rollout.The Pixel phones replaced the Nexus series, with a new generation of Pixel phones launched in October 2017.

In May 2019, the operating system became entangled in the trade war between China and the United


By |2019-12-23T11:02:13+00:00November 20th, 2019|Uncategorized|0 Comments


Windows Virtual PC

Windows Virtual PC (successor to Microsoft Virtual PC 2007, Microsoft Virtual PC 2004, and Connectix Virtual PC) is a virtualization program for Microsoft Windows. In July 2006 Microsoft released the Windows version as a free product.

In August 2006, Microsoft announced the Macintosh version would not be ported to Intel-based Macintosh computers, effectively discontinuing the product as PowerPC-based Macintosh computers are no longer manufactured. The newest release,

Windows Virtual PC, does not run on versions of Windows earlier than Windows 7, and does not officially support MS-DOS or operating systems earlier than Windows XP Professional SP3 as guests.The older versions, which support a wider range of host and guest operating systems, remain available. Starting with Windows 8, Hyper-V supersedes Windows Virtual PC.

Virtual PC virtualizes a standard IBM PC compatible device and its associated hardware. Supported Windows operating systems can run inside Virtual PC. Other operating systems such as Linux may run, but are not officially supported, and Microsoft does not provide the necessary “Virtual Machine Additions” (which include essential drivers) for Linux.

Virtual PC by Connectix

virtual pc

Connectix Virtual PC version 3 in Mac OS 9, running a Brazilian Portuguese edition of Windows 95

Virtual PC was originally developed as a Macintosh application for System 7.5 and released by Connectix in June 1997. The first version of Virtual PC designed for Windows-based systems, version 4.0, was released in June 2001. Connectix sold versions of Virtual PC bundled with a variety of guest operating systems, including Windows, OS/2, and Red Hat Linux. As virtualization’s importance to enterprise users became clear,

Microsoft took interest in the sector and acquired Virtual PC and Virtual Server (unreleased at the time) from Connectix in February 2003.
Virtual PC 4 requires Mac OS 8.5 or later on a G3 or G4 processor, but running Windows ME, Windows 2000 or Red Hat Linux requires Mac OS 9.0 or later. Virtual PC 4 was the first version with expandable drive images.

Virtual PC 5 requires Mac OS 9.1 or newer or Mac OS X 10.1 or later. For USB support, Mac OS X is recommended. To run Virtual PC 5 in Mac OS X, a 400 MHz or faster processor is required.
Earlier versions of Virtual PC supported the following features: (now removed in Microsoft Virtual PC 2004, 2007, and Windows Virtual PC):

  • Older versions of Virtual PC (v5.0 or earlier) may have the hard disk formatted after creating the Virtual Hard Disk file. Newer versions must partition and format the Virtual Hard Disk file manually.
  • A Virtual Switch available in Virtual PC version 4.1 or earlier allows adding multiple network adapters.
  • Older operating systems are supported with Virtual Machine additions.
  • Older versions of Virtual PC for Macintosh can run on Mac OS 9.2.2 or earlier. Support of Apple System 7.5 are dropped in version 3.

Under agreement with Connectix, Innotek GmbH (makers of VirtualBox, now part of Oracle) ported version 5.0 to run on an OS/2 host.[6] This version also included guest extensions (VM additions) for OS/2 guests, which could run on Windows, OS/2 or Mac OS X hosts using Virtual PC versions 5, 6 or 7. A new version of the guest extensions was later included with Microsoft’s Virtual PC 2004.

Microsoft Virtual PC

On July 12, 2006, Microsoft released Virtual PC 2004 SP1 for Windows free of charge, but the Mac version was not made free. The equivalent version for Mac, version 7, was the final version of Virtual PC for Mac. It ran on Mac OS X 10.2.8 or later for PowerPC and was a proprietary commercial software product.

Virtual PC 6.1 for Macintosh

Virtual PC 2007 was released only for the Windows platform, with public beta testing beginning October 11, 2006, and production release on February 19, 2007. It added support for hardware virtualization, viewing virtual machines on multiple monitors and support for Windows Vista as both host and guest. (The Windows Aero interface is disabled on Windows Vista guests due to limitations of the emulated video hardware; however, Aero effects can be rendered by connecting to the guest via Remote Desktop Services from an Aero-enabled Windows Vista host, provided that the guest is running Windows Vista Business or a higher edition.)

Virtual PC 2007 running the Live CD OS Knoppix

On May 15, 2008, Microsoft released Virtual PC 2007 Service Pack 1, which added support for both Windows XP SP3 and Windows Vista SP1 as guest and host OSes, as well as Windows Server 2008 Standard as a guest OS.A hotfix rollup for Virtual PC 2007 SP1, released February 20, 2009, solved networking issues and enhanced the maximum screen resolution to 2048×1920 (32-bit),enabling 16:9 resolutions such as 1920×1080. A security update was released on July 14, 2009 to address an elevation of privilege vulnerability in guest operating systems.
Microsoft Virtual PC (2004 and 2007) does not work at all on Windows 10 64-bit,and even on 32-bit platforms lack internet connectivity due to the lack of the VPC driver. This also impacts Windows Mobile emulators.

By |2019-12-23T11:08:56+00:00November 18th, 2019|PC Software, Softwares|0 Comments



This article is about the current Apple operating system for Mac computers. For pre-2001 versions, see Classic Mac OS.

“OSX” and “OS X” redirect here. For other uses, see OSX (disambiguation).

macOS (/ˌmækˈɛs/; previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple’s Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.

mac os

macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the “classic” Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS 9 in 1999. The first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving later that year.

After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to “OS X” in 2012 and then changed it to “macOS” in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. The latest version is macOS Catalina, which was publicly released in October 2019.

Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold a separate series of operating systems called Mac OS X Server. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.

macOS is based on the Unix operating system and on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving Apple in 1985. The “X” in Mac OS X and OS X is the Roman numeral for the number 10 and is pronounced as such.

The X was a prominent part of the operating system’s brand identity and marketing in its early years, but gradually receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopardand all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version also have UNIX 03 certification.macOS shares its Unix-based core,

named Darwin, and many of its frameworks with iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and watchOS. A heavily modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV.

Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion (2011) run exclusively on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, and do not support PowerPC applications.


The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, and then launched in 1989. The kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, which was originally developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language.

Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a “next-generation” OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent, Copland and Gershwin projects, but all of them were eventually abandoned.This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP, then called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple’s next generation operating system.

This purchase also led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, and then the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple’s primary market of home users and creative professionals. The project was first code named “Rhapsody” and then officially named MacOSX.

Mac OS X

Launch of Mac OS X

Mac OS X was originally presented as the tenth major version of Apple’s operating system for Macintosh computers; current versions of macOS retain the major version number “10”. Previous Macintosh operating systems (versions of the classic Mac OS) were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9. The letter “X” in Mac OS X’s name refers to the number 10, a Roman numeral, and Apple has stated that it should be pronounced “ten” in this context. However, it is also commonly pronounced like the letter “X”.

The first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system. Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; many could also be run directly through the Classic Environment with a reduction in performance.

The consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface, but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple’s popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X.Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as ‘dog-slow, feature poor’ and Aqua as ‘unbearably slow and a huge resource hog’.

By |2019-12-23T11:13:10+00:00November 18th, 2019|Mac Software, Softwares|0 Comments



Drupal is content management software. It’s used to make many of the websites and applications you use every day. Drupal has great standard features, like easy content authoring, reliable performance, and excellent security. … Its tools help you build the versatile, structured content that dynamic web experiences need.


A theme is a set of files that define the visual look and feel of your site. … A custom theme can be as simple as a single CSS file that adds styling to the markup provided by the core software. Guidance for creating custom themes in Drupal 8 can be found in the Drupal.org community documentation page “Theming Drupal“.



seven: The default administration theme for Drupal 8 was designed with clean lines, simple blocks, and sans-serif font to emphasize the tools and tasks at hand. stark: An intentionally plain theme with almost no styling to demonstrate default Drupal’s HTML and CSS.
However, in WordPress, plugins are generally easier to manage without needing a developer. … WordPress was originally designed as a blogging platform,

so it doesn’t have the same ability as Drupal does to handle really large volumes of content. Drupal can support thousands of pages and thousands of users.

WordPress, Joomla and Drupal are NOT the Best CMS.
This site uses affiliate links as a means of monetization. As popular in name as these three open source CMS are, the fact of the matter is they are simply NOT the best CMS on the market.




In Drupal’s case, the programming language PHP supplies the logic and MySQL provides the database. Usually, the operating system installed on the server to power this process is Linux, and Apache is the software that handles the requests for pages and delivers them once they are built.

Drupal /ˈdruːpəl/ is a free and open-source content management framework written in PHP and distributed under the GNU General Public License. Drupal provides a back-end framework for at least 2.3% of all websites worldwide – ranging from personal blogs to corporate, political, and government sites.



In short, you don’t need coding experience to start building website with Drupal. You need coding experience only to customize features already exist or to build new features that do not exist in the form of modules.
It wasn’t until January 2001 that Dries decided to release the software behind drop.org and therefore Drupal became an open source project. The name Drupal was derived from the English pronunciation of the Dutch word “druppel,” which means “drop.”

Most content on a Drupal website is stored and treated as “nodes“. A node is any piece of individual content, such as a page, poll, article, forum topic, or a blog entry. … It also allows you to painlessly apply new features or changes to all content of one type. Behind the scenes, the Node module manages these nodes.

By |2019-12-24T11:16:45+00:00November 18th, 2019|Druple, Themes|0 Comments



This article is about the blogging software WordPress (WordPress.org). For the blog host, see WordPress.com.
WordPress (WordPress.org) is a content management system (CMS) based on PHP and MySQL that is usually used with the MySQL or MariaDB database servers but can also use the SQLite database engine.Features include a plugin architecture and a template system, referred to inside WordPress as Themes.

WordPress is most associated with blogging (its original purpose when first created) but has evolved to support other types of web content including more traditional mailing lists and forums, media galleries, membership sites, learning management systems (LMS) and online stores. WordPress is used by more than 60 million websites,including 33.6% of the top 10 million websites as of April 2019,WordPress is one of the most popular content management system (CMS) solutions in use. WordPress has also been used for other application domains such as pervasive display systems (PDS).

WordPress was released on May 27, 2003, by its founders, Matt Mullenweg and Mike Little, as a fork of b2/cafelog. The software is released under the GPLv2 (or later) license.
To function, WordPress has to be installed on a web server, either part of an Internet hosting service like WordPress.com or a computer running the software package WordPress.org in order to serve as a network host in its own right. A local computer may be used for single-user testing and learning purposes.


WordPress users may install and switch among different themes. Themes allow users to change the look and functionality of a WordPress website without altering the core code or site content. Every WordPress website requires at least one theme to be present and every theme should be designed using WordPress standards with structured PHP, valid HTML (HyperText Markup Language), and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). Themes may be directly installed using the WordPress “Appearance” administration tool in the dashboard, or theme folders may be copied directly into the themes directory, for example via FTP.

The PHP, HTML and CSS found in themes can be directly modified to alter theme behavior, or a theme can be a “child” theme which inherits settings from another theme and selectively overrides features.WordPress themes are generally classified into two categories: free and premium. Many free themes are listed in the WordPress theme directory (also known as the repository), and premium themes are available for purchase from marketplaces and individual WordPress developers. WordPress users may also create and develop their own custom themes. The free theme Underscores created by the WordPress developers has become a popular basis for new themes.


WordPress’ plugin architecture allows users to extend the features and functionality of a website or blog. As of June 2019, WordPress.org has 55,131 plugins available, each of which offers custom functions and features enabling users to tailor their sites to their specific needs. However, this does not include the premium plugins that are available (approximately 1,500+), which may not be listed in the WordPress.org repository. ‘

These customizations range from search engine optimization (SEO), to client portals used to display private information to logged in users, to content management systems, to content displaying features, such as the addition of widgets and navigation bars. Not all available plugins are always abreast with the upgrades and as a result they may not function properly or may not function at all. Most plugins are available through WordPress themselves, either via downloading them and installing the files manually via FTP or through the WordPress dashboard. However, many third parties offer plugins through their own websites, many of which are paid packages.

Mobile applications

Phone apps for WordPress exist for WebOS,Android, iOS (iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad), Windows Phone, and BlackBerry. These applications, designed by Automattic, have options such as adding new blog posts and pages, commenting, moderating comments, replying to comments in addition to the ability to view the stats.

Other features

WordPress also features integrated link management; a search engine–friendly, clean permalink structure; the ability to assign multiple categories to posts; and support for tagging of posts. Automatic filters are also included, providing standardized formatting and styling of text in posts (for example, converting regular quotes to smart quotes). WordPress also supports the Trackback and Pingback standards for displaying links to other sites that have themselves linked to a post or an article. WordPress posts can be edited in HTML, using the visual editor, or using one of a number of plugins that allow for a variety of customized editing features.

By |2019-12-24T11:20:22+00:00November 18th, 2019|Themes, Wordpress|0 Comments
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